Indirect Costs

Indirect costs constitute 52% of total costs ($72.2 billion), and capture the burden of consequences of low vision, including productivity losses, long-term care, informal care, and the costs of transfer and entitlement programs.

Indirect Costs by Age Group (in $ millions)

Click on an age-group category to highlight the data.
Cost Category Age 0-17 Age 18-39 Age 40-64 Age 65+ All ages
Productivity Loss 0 12978 10828 24622 48427
Informal Care 601 0 187 1264 2052
Long-term Care 0 0 0 20248 20248
Entitlement Programs* .5 165 279 1782 2226
Tax Deduction* 0 6 11 10 28
Transfer Deadweight Loss 47 98 538 808 1490

Figure 3 Indirect costs by cost category

Indirect costs by cost category
*Transfer payment costs are not included in total costs