Economic Burden by Age
We estimated costs by four age groups: children aged 0-17 and adults aged 18-39, 40-64, and 65 and older. A majority of costs (55%) are incurred by the 65 and older age group. Children constitute 4% of total costs; while adults aged 18-39 and 40-64 accrue 16% and 24% of total costs, respectively.
Figure 1 Direct and Indirect Costs by Age Group in $ billions
|Costs||Age 0-17||Age 18-39||Age 40-64||Age 65+||All ages|
|Indirect Costs||.65||13.08||11.55||46.94||72.22||Total Costs||5.73||22.16||33.8||77.28||138.97|
Burden by Cost Category and Age Group
We estimated the total economic burden of eye disorders among the total U.S. population to be $138 billion per year in 2013 dollars (Table 15.1). Diagnosed disorders, including costs for optometry visits, total $48.8 billion. Medical vision aids including glasses and contact lenses cost $13.2 billion. Medical costs attributable to undiagnosed vision loss are $3 billion. All other direct costs total $1.7 billion, with the largest components consisting of the cost of special education and school screening ($770 million) followed by the cost of non-medical assistive devices ($750 million). Federal assistance programs add $207 million. Indirect costs, including productivity losses ($48.4 billion), informal care ($2 billion), long-term care (20.2 billion) and deadweight loss from transfer payments ($1.5 billion), total $72.2 billion.