Direct Costs

Direct costs are $66.8 billion (48% of total costs) and include medical costs for diagnosed disorders, medical costs attributable to low vision, medical vision aids, vision assistive devices and adaptations, and direct services including special education and assistance programs.

Direct Costs by Age Group (in $ millions)

Click on an age-group category to highlight the data.
Cost Category Age 0-17 Age 18-39 Age 40-64 Age 65+ All ages
Diagnosed Disorders 2844 5067 14218 26640 48769
Medical Vision Aids 1480 3335 6222 2199 13236
Undiagnosed Vision Loss 48 474 1702 798 3022
Aids/Devices 38 77 81 553 749
Education/School Screening 651 119 0 0 769
Assistance Programs 25 13 23 145 207

Figure 2. Direct costs by cost category